What is meant by teratomas?

Last Update: April 20, 2022

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(TAYR-uh-TOH-muh) A type of germ cell tumor

germ cell tumor
Listen to pronunciation. (jerm sel TOO-mer) A type of tumor that begins in the cells that give rise to sperm or eggs. Germ cell tumors can occur almost anywhere in the body and can be either benign or malignant.
https://www.cancer.gov › cancer-terms › def › germ-cell-tumor
that may contain several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, and bone. Teratomas may be mature or immature, based on how normal the cells look under a microscope. Sometimes teratomas are a mix of mature and immature cells.

What do teratomas do?

Teratomas happen when complications arise during your cells' differentiation process. In particular, they develop in your body's germ cells, which are undifferentiated. This means they can turn into any type of cell – from egg and sperm to hair cells.

Is teratoma a disease?

A teratoma is a rare type of tumor that can contain fully developed tissues and organs, including hair, teeth, muscle, and bone. Teratomas are most common in the tailbone, ovaries, and testicles, but can occur elsewhere in the body. Teratomas can appear in newborns, children, or adults. They're more common in females.

Are teratomas tumors?

Ovarian teratomas are the most common germ cell neoplasm and, in many series, the most common excised ovarian neoplasm. Teratomas comprise a number of histologic types of tumors, all of which contain mature or immature tissues of germ cell (pluripotential) origin.

Are teratomas twins?

Although these tumors can originate during embryonic development, they aren't embryos, and they are not a person's "twin." They arise from germ cells, which are the cells that go on to later develop into a person's gametes (such as sperm and eggs).

What are Teratomas? - Pathology mini tutorial

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Is a teratoma a baby?

What is a teratoma? A teratoma is a congenital (present prior to birth) tumor formed by different types of tissue. Teratomas in newborns are generally benign and don't spread. They can, however, be malignant, depending on the maturity and other types of cells that may be involved.

Should teratomas be removed?

Most teratomas are benign but malignant trans- formation does occur in 1-3% of cases. Teratomas can cause adnexal torsion or they may rupture and provoke acute peritonitis (Jones, 1988). Teratomas should therefore be removed when diagnosed.

How fast do teratomas grow?

Mature cystic teratomas are usually slow-growing, with an estimated growth rate of 1.8 mm/year, [6] although some have been shown to grow more rapidly.

Can teratomas spread?

Most malignant teratomas can spread throughout the body, and have spread by the time of diagnosis. Blood cancers are often associated with this tumor, including: Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

Can a teratoma cause weight gain?

If ACTH is secreted in excess it can cause an increase in cortisol secretion, which can be associated with the symptoms this patient was experiencing, including acute weight gain and abdominal striae [2].

Can a teratoma be cancerous?

Teratomas usually occur in the ovaries in women, the testicles in men, and the tailbone in children. They may also occur in the central nervous system (brain or spinal cord), chest, or abdomen. Teratomas may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).

How can you prevent teratoma?

To prevent the formation of teratomas, small molecules able to selectively and efficiently kill pluripotent cell by inhibiting antiapoptotic factors were developed (2, 3). However, the need for pluripotent stem cells to evade immune responses may be required for the growth of teratomas in vivo.

What are teratomas made of?

Congenital Malignant Disorders

Teratomas are composed of tissues arising from all three layers of the embryonic disk. Ectodermal components, including glial tissue, are a major component of teratomas presenting at birth—in particular, sacrococcygeal tumors. There are often skin, hair, and teeth elements.

Are teratomas genetic?

In summary, both immature and mature teratomas harbor frequent genetic homozygosity, implying a shared cellular origin involving germ cells at the same developmental stage.

Do teratomas metastasize?

During and after puberty, all teratomas are regarded as malignant because even mature teratomas (composed of entirely mature histologic elements) can metastasize to retroperitoneal lymph nodes or to other systems. Reported rates of metastasis vary from 29-76%.

Can you survive teratoma?

The five-year survival rate for stage 1 disease is 90 percent to 95 percent, while advanced stage survival drops to about 50 percent with Grade 1 to 2 cancer and to 25 percent or less when the tumors are found to be Grade 3.

Is mature teratoma curable?

Women with benign (non-cancerous) germ cell tumors such as mature teratomas (dermoid cysts) are cured by removing the part of the ovary that has the tumor (ovarian cystectomy) or by removing the entire ovary.

Are all immature teratomas malignant?

Immature teratomas are uncommon malignant ovarian neoplasms that comprise less than 1% of ovarian germ cell tumors. Immature and embryonic tissue from all three cell lines may be present within immature teratomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tissue is the most common malignant tissue subtype.

How does a teratoma get teeth?

Teratomas can grow teeth, not through dark magic, but through the normal magic of germ cells — the type of stem cell that turns into an egg or sperm cell, which in turn can produce a fetus. Germ cells are "pluripotent," as scientists put it, which means they can produce all different types of tissue.

What does an immature teratoma look like?

At CT and MRI, an immature teratoma possesses characteristic appearance. It is typically large (12–25 cm) and has prominent solid components with cystic elements. It is usually filled with lipid constituents and therefore demonstrates fat density at CT and MRI.

Can a teratoma cause positive pregnancy test?

A rare source of HCG production is a benign mature ovarian teratoma. Case: A 31-year old Gravida 2 para 2 presented with a positive home pregnancy test three years after she had experienced a Pomeroy tubal ligation.

Do teratomas run in families?

Familial ovarian dermoids are extremely rare, but can have significant implications for all female family members. There is a significant risk for development of an ovarian dermoid, which may result in torsion and infarction of the ovary.

Why do teratomas have teeth and hair?

In the case of teratomas, however, the cells can be of virtually and kind found throughout the human body, these cells will then replicate as if they were legitimately creating that kind of entity. This is the reason teeth, limbs and even brains can form where they aren't supposed to.

How big can a teratoma get?

Mature teratomas harboring SCCs tend to be larger than ordinary teratomas, with most measuring more than 10 cm and a mean size of around 13 cm (see Table 26.2). Despite the fact that at least 10% of mature teratomas are bilateral, the associated SCCs reported to date were unilateral in more than 95% of cases.