Where do el ninos occur?

Last Update: April 20, 2022

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Asked by: Brayan Rath
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The Short Answer: El Niño is a weather pattern that occurs in the Pacific Ocean. During this time, unusual winds cause warm surface water from the equator to move east, toward Central and South America.

Where are El Ninos found?

El Niño is a climate cycle in the Pacific Ocean with a global impact on weather patterns. The cycle begins when warm water in the western tropical Pacific Ocean shifts eastward along the equator toward the coast of South America. Normally, this warm water pools near Indonesia and the Philippines.

Where is El Niño most likely to occur?

Typical El Niño effects are likely to develop over North America during the upcoming winter season. Those include warmer-than-average temperatures over western and central Canada, and over the western and northern United States.

Where does El Niño occur and what areas can it effect?

El Niño is a phenomenon that occurs when unusually warm ocean water piles up along the equatorial west coast of South America. When this phenomenon develops, it affects weather patterns around the globe, including the winter weather along the west coast of North America.

Does El Niño only occur in the Pacific Ocean?

9. Do El Niño events occur only in the Pacific Ocean? The great width of the Pacific Ocean is the main reason we see El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in that ocean as compared to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most current theories of ENSO involve planetary scale equatorial waves.

El Nino - What is it?

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What climate conditions occur during La Niña?

During a La Niña year, winter temperatures are warmer than normal in the South and cooler than normal in the North. La Niña can also lead to a more severe hurricane season. La Niña causes the jet stream to move northward and to weaken over the eastern Pacific.

What countries does El Niño effect?

El Niño has been linked with drought not just in parts of Latin America but in southeastern Africa, South Asia, Indonesia and Australia. It has also been associated with steep declines in fish stocks, including the 1972 collapse of the world's largest fishery, the Peruvian anchoveta.

Where does El Niño sea current flows?

The El Nino, a cold ocean current, flows along the coast of Peru during Christmas.

How does El Niño and La Niña affect global climate?

El Niño and La Niña affect not only ocean temperatures, but also how much it rains on land. Depending on which cycle occurs (and when), this can mean either droughts or flooding. Typically, El Niño and its warm waters are associated with drought, while La Niña is linked to increased flooding.

What is El Niño in geography?

El Niño is a climate pattern that describes the unusual warming of surface waters in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. El Nino is the “warm phase” of a larger phenomenon called the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

How are currents in the Pacific Ocean affected by El Niño?

During an El Niño event, the surface waters in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean become significantly warmer than usual. ... It also reduces the upwelling of cooler, nutrient-rich waters from the deep—shutting down or reversing ocean currents along the equator and along the west coast of South and Central America.

Which part of the Pacific Ocean is likely to experience heavy rains during El Niño?

Cloudiness and Precipitation

So while the majority of precipitation tends to occur over the west Pacific warm pool in neutral years, much more develops over the central and eastern Pacific during an El Niño event.

How often does El Niño occur?

How often does El Niño occur and how long does it last? El Niños occur irregularly approximately every two to seven years. Warm water generally appears off the coast of South America close to Christmas, and reaches its peak warmth in the eastern Pacific during the late fall of the following year.

How is El Niño formed?

El Niño occurs when warm water builds up along the equator in the eastern Pacific. The warm ocean surface warms the atmosphere, which allows moisture-rich air to rise and develop into rainstorms.

How is El Niño identified?

El Niño is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific, as opposed to La Niña, which is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific.

How is South America affected by El Niño?

El Niño and La Niña are associated with substantial socio-economic impacts in South America, which can often be linked to corresponding changes in precipitation and temperature, thereby, triggering (or amplifying) drought and/or flooding.

Where does it happen El Niño and La Niña?

El Niño and La Niña are opposite phases of a natural climate pattern across the tropical Pacific Ocean that swings back and forth every 3-7 years on average. Together, they are called ENSO (pronounced “en-so”), which is short for El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

How does La Niña and El Niño occur?

El Niño and La Niña result from interaction between the surface of the ocean and the atmosphere in the tropical Pacific. ... In turn, changes in the atmosphere impact the ocean temperatures and currents. The system oscillates between warm (El Niño) to neutral or cold (La Niña) conditions on average every 3-4 years.

How does it happen El Niño and La Niña?

El Niño and La Niña events are natural occurrences in the global climate system resulting from variations in ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific. In turn, changes in the atmosphere impact the ocean temperatures and currents. The system oscillates between warm (El Niño) to neutral or cold (La Niña) conditions.

What is El Niño in relation to ocean oscillations?

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregular periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting the climate of much of the tropics and subtropics. The warming phase of the sea temperature is known as El Niño and the cooling phase as La Niña.

Where is the North Equatorial Current located?

The North Equatorial Current (NEC) is a westward wind-driven current mostly located near the equator, but the location varies from different oceans. The NEC in the Pacific and the Atlantic is about 5°-20°N, while the NEC in the Indian Ocean is very close to the equator.

What causes El Niño Southern Oscillation?

Although the exact initiating causes of an ENSO warm or cool event are not fully understood, the two components of ENSO – sea surface temperature and atmospheric pressure are strongly related. During an El Niño event, the easterly trade winds converging across the equatorial Pacific weaken.

What are the main causes of El Niño?

Weaker winds means the ocean gets warmer and this process happens interchangeably and consecutively thus making the El Niño bigger and bigger. In other words, El Niño is caused by the weakening of the trade winds which results in pushing of warm surface water to the west and less cold water to the east.

Which five African countries are commonly affected by the El Niño weather phenomenon?

El Niño has already triggered drought in Ethiopia, northern Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti and eastern Chad. As of 4 July, approximately 28 million people in the Horn of Africa region were in Crisis or Emergency food security outcomes (IPC Phases 3 and 4) and in need of immediate humanitarian assistance.

What is a La Nina weather?

Per NOAA, La Niña is defined as cooler than normal sea-surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean that impact global weather patterns. These cooler sea-surface temperatures occur because the negative phase of ENSO results in faster trade winds over the central Pacific Ocean.